The muscular system and skeletal system cooperate in the musculoskeletal system to support and move the body.
The bones of the skeletal system support the body weight, provide shape and protect the internal organs. These bones serve as the sites where the muscles of the muscular system bind to and pull them to move the body.
The musculoskeletal system serves many other purposes besides giving the body stability and mobility. The skeletal part is essential for maintaining homeostatic processes, like the storage of minerals (such as calcium) and hematopoiesis, whereas the muscular system preserves most of the body’s carbohydrates as glycogen.
There are 206 bones and the associated cartilage in the adult human skeleton. Ligaments, bursae, tendons, and muscles support the bones. Over 300 bones are present at birth in humans, but many of them fuse as they mature. The appendicular and axial skeleton are the two components of the human skeleton.
The human skeleton comprises isolated and fused bones held together by ligaments, tendons, muscles, and cartilage. There are five broad categories of bones. These include sesamoid bones, irregular bones, flat bones, long bones, and short bones.
Functions of the Skeletal System
The human skeleton serves several essential functions. It protects internal organs, supports and shapes the body, and allows movement. Additionally, the marrow of some bones serves as the location for the formation of blood cells.
The skeletal system provides a foundation for organs and tissues to adhere to. Vital organs are protected by this skeletal system, which serves as a framework. The skeletal system safeguards the internal organs due to its structural integrity – most significantly, the brain, which is enclosed in the skull, and the heart and lungs, protected by the rib cage.
The skeletal system also performs various metabolic tasks. Essential minerals, primarily calcium and phosphorus, are stored in the bones. This makes the bones critical for maintaining a healthy calcium level in the blood, which controls the bone resorption rate.
Hematopoiesis, the process of producing new blood cells, takes place in the bone marrow present in spongy bone. Red blood cells, platelets, and white blood cells, including granulocytes, monocytes, and lymphocytes, are among the cells produced in the bone marrow.
An organ system known as the muscular system comprises specialised contractile tissue known as muscle tissue. Skeletal, smooth, and cardiac muscles are the three different forms of muscle tissue found in the human body.
Skeletal muscles are striated and voluntary. These muscles regulate conscious movement by being attached to bones. Smooth muscles are non-striated and involuntary. They are located around blood vessels and in hollow body organs like the stomach and intestines. Cardiac muscles are striated and involuntary. They only exist in the heart and are designed to assist in pumping blood throughout the body.
Functions of the Muscular System
The primary purpose of the muscular system is to induce physical movement. The musculoskeletal system is capable of carrying out various movements based on the plane and axis.
Muscles help to support and stabilise joints generally while they are moving and when they are in a resting position. The muscles also contribute significantly to maintaining posture. Numerous muscles and associated tendons overlap joints, stabilising and holding the articulating bones together.
Clinical Importance of the Musculoskeletal System
Because the vascular, neural, and integumentary systems are interconnected, diseases affecting one of these systems might also impact the musculoskeletal system and make it harder to diagnose the cause of the disorder. Musculoskeletal system disorders can range from severe conditions to minor physical abnormalities.
The following conditions also affect the musculoskeletal system:
- Lupus erythematosus
- Myasthenia gravis
- Rotator cuff tear
- Carpal tunnel syndrome